IAHN
Editor-in-Chief: Janusz Ostrowski IAHN Bulletin is the official E-Newsletter of the International Association for the History of Nephrology
INTRODUCTION Halfway through the IAHN Board's cadency I feel compelled to inform about and summarise the activities taken by the Board and all the members of the society. Inspired by the brilliant idea put forward by professor Natale De Santo, and following in the footsteps of other, larger scientific organisations, we are launching the News Bulletin, the official IAHN newsletter. We hope to make it a competent and convenient platform for sharing the news, events and successes concerning our society and its dear members. The first issue recapitulates the events taking place throughout 2018. It is our intention to prepare and publish the newsletter 2-3 times per year in close cooperation with all our members. It is also our aim to promote the history of nephrology among our colleagues from other thematically-related societies. Building and developing the position and popularity of our society among broader circles seems the condicio sine qua non for its survival. The current issue of the Bulletin, as well as all the forthcoming ones, will be published on the IAHN website. I hope you enjoy it! Merry Christmas and Happy New Year
NEWS ON IAHN’S MEMBERS AND THEIR HISTORICAL ACTIVITIES On April 10, 2018 , at the Accademia Peloritana Pericolanti of the University of Messina (founded August 8,1729 ), in the course of a regular session Professor Vincenzo Savica gave a lecture on Timeline in the History of Urine and its relevance for the future . The presentation has been turned in a paper published in the proceedings of the Academy. At the 4 th Congress of the Mediterranean Kidney Society in Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina, April 20-22, 2018 ) Guido Bellinghieri and Natale G De Santo, founders of the society, received the Presidential Honorary Plaque by Ayse Balat (President of the Society). Prof. Vincenzo Savica was advanced President Elect ( 2021-2024). Natale De Santo gave the State of the art lecture on CARDIORENAL MEDICINE OF JEAN FERNEL (1497-1558): THE FATHER OF PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY. Chairs were Guido Bellinghieri and Athanasios Diamandopoulos. The session on history of nephrology was chaired by Natale G. De Santo and Vincenzo Savica who lectured on HISTORY OF THE URINE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN AREA. Athanasios Diamandopoulos GAVE A TALK ON REMEDIES FOR KIDNEY DISORDERS FROM THE MONASTERIES OF HOLY MOUNTAIN, ATHOS, GREECE whereas Guido Bellinghieri spoke on THE HISTORY OF DIABETES: FROM THE KIDNEY TO THE PANCREAS. At the 55 th ERA-EDTA Congress, Copenhagen, May 24-27 2018 , there were a session of Free Communications and a poster session with 16 presentations. The historical Program was the result of a joint effort of ERA-EDTA and the International Association for the History of Nephrology following the 4 year agreement between the societies signed by Athanasios Diamandopoulous and Professor Andrzej Wiecek. The session on oral presentations was co-chaired by IAHN President Janusz Ostrowski and by IAHN Past President Vincenzo Savica. It was opened by Professor Vincenzo Savica who gave the minilecture on NEWS IN THE ANTIQUE CONCEPT OF MORBUS DOMINORUM. Athanasios Diamandopoulos presented and illustrated with competence and classe data on THE DARKNESS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT. AN EXAMPLE OF HEATING OF URINES IN THE BYZANTINE UROSCOPY. A very original paper on KIDNEY AILMENTS IN THE “HANDBOOK OF DOCTORS” BY DIONYSIOS PYRROS THE THESSALIAN (1774-1853) was presented by Professor Ioannis Stefanidis in collaboration with Spyridon Golfinopoulos and Athanasios Diamandopoulos. Ayla San, Anatolian Kidney Foundation in Ankara, was the star of the session. She gave stimulating talks on (a) SAFFRON AND ITS EFFECTS ON KIDNEYS and (b) HISTORICAL PROGRESS OF URINE EXAMINATION FROM UROSCOPY TO URINALYSIS. Natale G De Santo, Carmela Bisaccia and Luca S. De Santo , discussed the heretofore unknown KIDNEY DISEASES DESCRIBED BY ANTONIO BENIVIENI (1443-1502), THE FOUNDER OF PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY. The presentations included the discussion adult and pediatric cases published in Florence in 1507. At the EDTA Congress in Copenhagen there were 16 historical poster presentations (listed below) which gave the pulse of the high level of reached by history of nephrology under the umbrella of ERA-EDTA. Some of the presenters were newcomers in the topic. 1 . KIDNEY AILMENTS IN THE “HANDBOOK OF DOCTORS” BY DIONYSIOS PYRROS THE THESSALIAN (1774-1853) by Ioannis Stefanidis, GREECE. 2 . SAFFRON AND ITS EFFECTS ON KIDNEYS by Ayla San, TURKEY. 3 . HISTORICAL PROGRESS OF URINE EXAMINATION FROM UROSCOPY TO URINALYSIS by Ayla San, TURKEY. 4 . KIDNEY DISEASES DESCRIBED BY ANTONIO BENIVIENI (1443-1502), THE FOUNDER OF PATHOLOGICAL ANATOMY by Natale G. De Santo, Carmela Bisaccia, Luca S. De Santo, Naples, ITALY. 5 . HISTORY OF RENAL AND OCULAR FINDINGS IN PRIMARY HYPEROXALURIA: FROM OXALIS ACETOSELLA TO THE MULBERRY CALCULUS, CKD, RETINOPATHY AND SYSTEMIC OXALOSIS by Davide Viggiano, Francesca Simonelli, Giovambattista Capasso, Natale G. De Santo, ITALY. 6 . JOSEP TRUETA I RASPALL (1897-1977): THE EXCELLENT HISTORY OF THE RENAL CIRCULATION by Enrico Favaro, ITALY. 7 . ARTHUR CECIL ALPORT - HIS INPUT INTO THE KNOWLEDGE ON THE NEPHROLOGICAL HEREDITARY DISEASES by Anna Bednarek, Andrzej Woliński, POLAND. 8 . HISTORY OF HEPARIN USE IN NEPHROLOGY by Maria Ivanova, Olga Vetchinnikova, Alexey Zulkarnaev, RUSSIAN FEDERATION. 9 . HYSTORY OF THE MYSTERY OF NATURE AND THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION by Danijela Tasic, Sonja Radenkovic, Dijana Stojanovic, Gordana Kocic, Vladmila Bojanic, Branka Mitic, Zorica Dimitrijevic, Stevan Glogovac, Katarina Tasic, SERBIA. 1 0 . RELATIVELY UNKNOWN "NEPHROLOGISTS" BETWEEN 1st-14th CENTURY by Vincenzo Savica, Giovanni Duro, Thanos Diamandopoulos, Guido Bellinghieri, ITALY. 1 1 . FIRST PAPERS ON THE DIAGNOSIS OF THE DISEASE ACCORDING TO CHANGE IN URINE IN MEDIEVAL SERBIA, 16TH CENTURY by Vladimir Sakac, SERBIA. 1 2 . GREAT PRECURSORS OF NEPHROLOGY IN POLAND by Janusz Ostrowski, Przemyslaw Rutkowski, Boleslaw Rutkowski, POLAND. 1 3 . CONTRIBUTION OF PROFESSOR ANTONIO BARAT IN EARLY SPANISH NEPHROPATHOLOGY by Belén Marrón, Antonio Barat, Esmeralda Castillo, Marta Jiménez-Arroyo, Alberto Ortíz, SPAIN. 1 4 . PROFESSOR LUIS HERNANDO: PIONEER OF SPANISH NEPHROLOGY by Belén Marrón, Esmeralda Castillo, Antonio Barat, Alberto Ortíz, SPAIN. 1 5 . THE DIAGNOSTIC ROLE OF URINE ANALYSIS IN THE BOOK “A PRACTICAL TREATISE ON URINARY AND RENAL DISEASES, INCLUDING URINARY DEPOSITS” BY SIR WILLIAM ROBERTS (1865) by Guido Gembillo 1 , Guido Bellinghieri 1 , Pietro Bellinghieri 2 , Vincenzo Savica 3 , Domenico Santoro 1 , Italy . 1 6 . 60 ANNIVERSARY OF THE FIRST HEMODIALYSIS IN POLAND by Przemyslaw Rutkowski, Janusz Ostrowski, Boleslaw Rutkowski, POLAND. At the 46 th Congress of the International Society for the History of Medicine (ISHM) in Lisbon (September 3-7 2018 ) Athanasios Diamandopoulos, Vice President of the Society, organized a plenary event on History of Nephrology which included his presentation on Asparagus the diuretic, a renal ambassador from Grece to Iberia ), and that of Davide Viggiano Portuguese and Spanish contributions to the discovery of renal medicine and ocular findings in primary hyperoxluria. Professor Levi Guerra gave a talk on Early history of Portuguese nephrology. Natale G. De Santo spoke about Renal Medicine of Antonio Benivieni (1433-1502) the father of pathological anatomy ) and co-chaired with Dana Baran the session on oral communications. Athanasios Diamandopoulos gave an additional talk on Enemies and criminals: The experimental animals for the progress of anatomical knowledge. Carlos Lemos and his collaborators, Nova Medical School discussed data on Has Beethoven suffered from Alport’s syndrome? whereas Kennet Collins of the University of Glasgow gave a talk on Isac Judaeus and his book of urine. IAHN member Professor Ahmet Aciduman gave an interesting talk On wounds of the headin Kitab al-Dhakira fi’ilm al’ibn by Thabit b. Qurra. Throughout all congress Ayla San actively and brilliantly participated in the discussion. Carlos Viesca, Mexico City, President of ISHM provided the History of Iberian Nephrology, Alain Touwaide, Vice President of ISHN gave the last of 4 keynote lectures on The journey of knowledge: Da Orta and classical medicine in Goa (India). Natale G. De Santo was made elected of the International Astronautical Academy for his pioneer studies on renal function in space based on urine collected in four MIR missions and on experiment on Head-down tilt in young persons. The studies were financed by the Italian Space Agency in the years 1999-2017. Natale De Santo SUPPLEMENT of GIN The 55 ERA-EDTA Congress held in Copenhagen, Denmark earlier this year was directly preceded by the release of a supplement to Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia (GIN) containing most of the papers presented during the 10 IAHN Congress in Wieniec Zdroj, Poland in May 2017 and qualified for publication by the Congress’ Scientific Committee. By continuing the tradition of publishing papers on the history of nephrology, all congress organisers add to international promotion of the field. Janusz Ostrowski COOPERATION WITH OTHER SOCIETIES On assuming the position of the IAHN President, I started, in close cooperation with the Board, to plan and implement activities aimed at maintaining our good relations with the ERA-EDTA. However, we have also been making efforts to put the IAHN on the world stage by establishing cooperation with the largest scientific associations like the International Society of Nephrology or the American Society of Nephrology. I am personally involved in conducting intensive negotiations with the current Heads of these organisations. Our proposals of cooperation have largely met a more-than-positive response. They are being considered by the respective Boards and, thus, due to certain formal obstacles the hard and fast results are still to emerge in the nearest future. On the other hand, the not-so-positive news comes from the ERA-EDTA, the cooperation with which, on the same level as it was during the previous presidency of that organisation, seems slightly jeopardised. One of the solution to go around the mounting hardships might be to submit big numbers of historical abstracts for the upcoming congress held in Budapest, Hungary next year. We are also in the process of negotiating with the International Society of the History of Medicine. It is our past president, professor Athanasios Diamandopoulos who was kind enough to become engaged in the talks with the board of the ISHM on my behalf. The perspectives are good; what we need is to present our expectations and await a positive response. We hope to be able to come up with some good news on this subject next year. HISTORICAL SECTION OF THE POLISH SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY It was back in 2008 when professor Andrzej Wiecek, then the President of the Polish Society of Nephrology, and the President-to-be of the ERA-EDTA established the Historical Section of the Polish Society of Nephrology with professor Bolesław Rutkowski as the President and Janusz Ostrowski the Secretary. Members of the section prepare and issue quarterly publications in Forum Nefrologiczne journal which depict biographies of the honorary members of the Polish Society of Nephrology. In 2018, the printed papers have presented professors Mieczysław Lao, Walter Hörl and Tomasz Szepietowski. A publication on our late friend, Miroslav Mydlik is currently being prepared. The history of nephrology enjoys well-established presence at most nephrology conferences organised in Poland. In June this year, during the congress of the Polish Society of Nephrology held in Warsaw, Janusz Ostrowski gave a lecture titled: “Professor Andrzej Biernacki, the Great Internist, Forefather of Nephrology”. Later on, in September, during the Krakow Dialysis Days a historical session “Precursors of Nephrology in Poland” was held with lectures given by prof. Bolesław Rutkowski ( “Professor Jakub Penson” ), prof. Marian Klinger ( “Professor Zdzisław Wiktor” ) and Janusz Ostrowski ( “Professor Jan Roguski”) . In October, during the 9 Top Nephrological Trends, Janusz Ostrowski gave the opening lecture titled “Doctor Karol Marcinkowski”. The activities of the Historical Section have already brought measurable results for the promotion of the history of nephrology and more historical speeches are coming up next year. I am deeply convinced that this idea, so effectively pursued in Poland, would find appreciation among the managements of many other national societies of nephrology around the world. The previously-mentioned President of the Historical Section of the Polish Society of Nephrology, the Past-President of the IAHN, Professor Bolesław Rutkowski, for years has held the position of the Editor-in-Chief of Forum Nefrologiczne (Nephrology Forum) and the university-based journal known as Gazeta AMG. Additionally, B. Rutkowski is the editor of the “Dialysis Treatment” section within the journal Nefrologia i Dializoterapia Polska (Polish Nephrology and Dialysis Treatment). He is also the President of the Bioethics Committee at his alma mater that is the Medical University of Gdańsk, POLAND. Janusz Ostrowski OBITUARY Professor Miroslav Mydlik (Košice 1932-2018) 1 Natale G De Santo, and 2 Katka Derzsiova 1 Emeritus Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy, Email: NataleGaspare.Desanto@unicampania.it 2 Former Head of the Nephrological Laboratory at the 1 st and 4 th Internal Clinic of the University Hospital of L. Pasteur and Medical Faculty of P.J. Šafárik University in Košice , Slovak Republic, Email: katka.derzsiova@gmail.com Figure 1. Professor Miroslav Mydlik On birth and death Miroslav Mydlik, MD, DSc (Fìgure 1), a member (1998-2017) and councillor (2010-2015) of the International Association for the History of Nephrology, was born on July 21, 1932, in Košice (Czechoslovakia) and died in the same city (now in the Slovak Republic) on September 6, 2018. Studies in medicine and early career Miroslav Mydlik—after completing the classical high school—started in 1951 medical studies and successfully graduated at the Faculty of Medicine of the Charles University, Prague, in 1957. In the years 1959-1964 he specialized in Internal Medicine. In 1963 he was started in nephrology by Jan Brod, the charismatic Director of the Cardiovascular Institute at the University of Prague and President of the 3 rd International Congress of Nephrology, which took place in that city in the second half of that year. Mydlik was there as postgraduating scientist for 4 months. He established a full open contact with that great mentor and fully utilised the stimulating environment. He wrote about that experience. The short lucky and intense training with Professor Jan Brod in Prague My postgraduate stay consisted of: a) work at clinical department; b) in nephrological outpatients department together with Prof. Brod one day a week; c) participation in seminars; d) active participation in scientific and research project on the measurement of blood pressure by direct and indirect method. Later the results of this project were published. The obtained results were: the values of systolic blood pressure which were measured by direct method were 1.33 1.86 kPa higher than the values measured by indirect method. In examination of diastolic blood pressure the values which were found during the direct measurement of blood pressure corresponded to the values which were measured by indirect method in sudden weakness of sounds. In disappearance of sounds the values of diastolic blood pressure measured by indirect method were lower in comparison with the values which were measured by direct method” (1). The findings of that studies were published in 1966 (2). In Prague Mydlik learned kidney biopsy procedures under the supervision of Professor Brod which were immediately adopted in Košice in the same year (3). The path to Professor of Medicine and Physician Chief of Nephrology In the years 1964-1979 he was Assistant Professor at the 1 st Department of Internal Medicine, Medical Faculty of P.J. Šafárik University. There he organized a dialysis centre and enrolled as chief of the laboratory Eng. Katka Derzsiova. She renovated the laboratory and introduced new techniques and equipment to study metabolic changes in chronic renal failure and during dialysis, mainly metabolism of vitamins and hemoperfusion through active charcoal and other sorbents. This was an epochal change which reflected on the number and quality of the scientific production. This coincided with a creative and fertile period in the career of Professor Mydlik. It also happened that the Lady Engineer was turned into a brilliant investigator in the field of nephrology, uremia toxicity and dialysis, and hemoperfusion. Many new projects were started, various grants were obtained. In 1977 Miroslav Mydlik carried out the first hemoperfusion through active charcoal in a patient suffering from paraquat poisoning that was the first in the former Czechoslovakia. Moreover he gradually introduced all the extracorporeal methods and CAPD (1-4). He was a very talented and creative scientist and in 1971 discussed a PhD thesis in clinical nephrology and in 1973 passed the examination as specialist in nephrology, being the first in Slovakia. From 1979 to 1992 he was Registrar in Nephrology and Head of Dialysis Centre of the 4 th Internal Clinic at the Faculty Hospital with Polyclinic, and later at the Faculty Hospital of L. Pasteur. In 1984 he successfully became Doctor Scientiarum of Medical Sciences at the Medical Faculty of Charles University in Prague and in 1990 he habilitated as Associate Professor of Internal Medicine. In 1992 he was finally appointed by President Václav Havel full Professor of Internal Medicine and physician in chief (4-7). Publications and presentations The list of Mydlik's works includes over 450 scientific publications. Main topics were metabolic changes in chronic renal failure, metabolic disorders of some vitamins in chronic renal failure, renal replacement therapy, uremic toxins, hemoperfusion in acute poisoning in vivo and in vitro. He discussed his findings (over 785 presentations) in domestic and international congresses in Europe, USA, South America, Asia. He also organized many nephrological congresses and symposiums in Czechoslovakia, Slovakia, most of them with international participation (1970-2012). He also started awarding the honorary title of Doctor Honoris Causa by P.J. Šafárik University in Košice. In the years 1993-2006 the title was awarded to various outstanding scientists including 7 professors of nephrology (Shaul Massry, Joel Kopple, Horst Klinkmann, Franciszek Kokot, Natale G De Santo, Guido Bellinghieri and Vittorio Bonomini). He was very active till the end of 2017 by teaching medicine for foreign and Slovak students, and by working one day a week in the outpatient clinic and one day a week as scientific worker at the Medical Faculty. Clinical care Professor M. Mydlik, as the former Head of Dialysis unit (1966-1992) of the 4 th Internal Clinic (1992 1997) and the Nephrological Clinic (1997-2003) of the Medical School of P.J. Šafarik University and University Hospital of L. Pasteur in Košice, made significant clinical experiences with 1,300 patients, who underwent renal biopsy, with 1,500 patients undergoing renal replacement therapy and with 380 patients with acute poisonings (8). Positions covered Professor Mydlik was Head of the Subchair of Nephrology and Dialysis of Postgraduate School of Medicine in Bratislava ( 1991-2003); President of the Medical Association in Košice (1990-2002); Prorector of the P.J. Šafárik University in Košice (1994–1997); Main specialist for nephrology of the Ministry of Health, Slovak Republic (1994-2007); Member of the board of Slovak Nephrological Society (1969-2007) (4-8). From 2010 (Figure 2) to 2017 Professor Mydlik was a promoter of Survival Is Not Enough , an event organized by the Italian Institute for Philosophical Studies for the World Kidney day enrolling economists, philosophers, patients, nurses, technicians and nephrologists. In those years he organized in association with Katka Derzsiova an event in Kezmarok. He contributed various appealing papers on patient’s needs and his name appears as editor of various books published by the Italian Institute for Philosophical Studies. Figure 2 also shows that at the age of 78 years he could attract the Rector, the Dean of the Medical Faculty, the Mayor of the City, the President of the Slovak Society of Nephrology and the President of the Slovck Society of Medicine.That is to say that his Alma Mater respected him and allowed him to work till the end in great freedom and he was respected by renowned scientists of his country. In September 2016 Professor Mydlik was a founder of the European Association of Professors Emeriti (EAPE) in Athens, where he gave an epochal talk and was elected in the Council at Large of the newly founded association and helped to promote the initial growth of the association (9). Congresses in the year 2017 The last international talk was given at Wloclawek in Poland, at the 2017 Congress of the International Association for the History of Nephrology. The last talks in Slovakia were given in November 2017. At the Meeting on Preventive medicine he spoke about Renal Disease and Aging . At the Franz Kafka Medical and Literary Memorial in Kežmarok, there was a ceremony for the release of the book of Miroslav Mydlik and Katka Derzsiova entitled Lung Tuberculosis of Franz Kafka. The influence of Disease on His Literary Work. For that book events were planned at the P.J. Śafárik University in Košice and at the Franz Kafka Center in Prague. But they could not take place. Professor Mydlik was diagnosed myastenia gravis in 2016. He healed and his condition was stabilized. In January 2018 for a spine problem he underwent surgery. For various complications he needed long lasting hospitalization at the St. Lukas Geriatric Center. On September 6, 2018, he died. His funeral took place on the subsequent day, people of the University, University Hospital and patients participated in the event. There were many outstanding talks from prominent speakers. He was buried at the Rozalia Cemetery in Košice (8, 9). Honors “He was Honorary Member of the Polish Society of Nephrology (1994), Honorary Member of Slovak (1997) and Czech Medical Society (2002), and correspondent Member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Miroslav Mydlik was Visiting Professor at the Faculty of Medicine of Bruxelles (Belgium), at the Nephrological Clinic of the Medical University in Katowice (Poland) following invitation of Professor Franciszek Kokot and the Moscow Institute of Medicine of the Academy of URSS at invitation of Professor Irina J. Tareieva. Miroslav Mydlik was awarded the Purkyně Medal of Czechoslovak Medical Society (1979); The International Distinguished Medal of the National Kidney Foundation (USA), (1994); The Medal of the University of Messina, Italy (2000); The Medal "Sigillo Magno“ of the University of Bologna (2002); The Medal "Golden Kidney“ of the Slovak Nephrological Society (2002); Professor Emeritus of P.J. Šafárik University, Košice (2004); The Medal of Campania Sicily Branch of the Italian Society Branch of Nephrology; The Teofil Rudolf Niederland Price— the highest honor conferred by the Slovak Medical Society—awarded by the Presidium of Slovak Medical Society, as the highest prize to a top specialist (only one scientist per year) for long-term significant scientific and professional activities in the field of medicine and pharmacy (Bratislava, 2009); The Gold Medal of P.J. Šafárik University, Košice (2009); "The Lifelong Contribution Award for Medical and Biological Sciences" awarded by the Board of the Literary Fund of the Slovak Republic (2014); On December 8th, 2015, he was introduced into the "Hall of Glory of Slovak Medicine" in Bratislava. On September 27, 2018, at the Meeting of the Scientific Council of the Faculty of Medicine of UPJŠ, on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of its foundation, Professor Miroslav Mydlik was awarded a medal in memoriam . The celebration took place in the House of Arts, in the concert hall of the Košice Philharmonic Orchestra. “(8). Cultural interests He was interested in world literature, theatre, classical music, history of Egypt, Greece and Italy and history of medicine. He founded the Franz Kafka Monument in Tatranské Matliare (High Tatras) in 2001, and was the organizer of 8 International medical and literary symposiums dedicated to Franz Kafka in the years 2001-2014. In association with Julius Vajó he was the editor of a significant book History of the University Hospital of Louis Pasteur in Košice (Figure 3 ) . He was also a co-author of the first Slovak monograph in nephrology: Dzúrik R., Šašinka M., Mydlík M., Kovács L., et al. Nephrology. Bratislava, Herba comp. Ltd. 2004 (877 pages). TRIBUTE TO AUGUST HEIDLAND Natale G De Santo 1 and Janusz Ostrowski 2 1 Emeritus Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy, email: Nataleg.Desanto@unicampania.it 2 Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education. Department of the History of Medicine Warsaw, Poland, E-mail:janusz.ostrowski@cmkp.edu.pl August Heidland CV speaks per se and is a demonstration of what can be done before and after retirement, as shown by the total number of paper, and those produced from 1995 onward. Apart from his evident merits in science, teaching and clinical care (the triple threat, a rarity) , we have two additional reasons for being fascinated by his charisma and personality. The first reason is his participation in the founding of the International Association for the History of nephrology. He was present in the first international conference (Naples-Montecassino, November 28-30, 1993) as illustrate by photo no.1 which was shot in the Abbey of Montecassino (Italy) under the statue of Carolus Magnus on November 30, at noon. His talk was related to "Hypertension as Cause and Consequence of Renal Disese in the 19thCentury (1) Heidland participated in all subsequent congresses, from Kos( 1996) to Milazzo (2016). In the latter city he illustrated the activity of "The joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switzerland and Austria. Five Decades of successful Activities" (2). The second reason is to be found in the interest of August Heidland to reinstate the role of emeriti in German University. He was part of the group which produced a significant study on the role of emeriti or retired clinical professors (3, 4). That idea has been nurtured and resulted in the founding of the European Association of Professors Emeriti and that paper was recently quoted by Nature (July 17, 2014) as indicative of the interesting role of professors emeriti. Heidland's CV is presented herein as a sign of excellency in a fruitful academic career and beyond. References 1. Heidland A. Hypertension as Cause and Consequence of Renal Disese in the 19thCentury. Am J Nephrol 1994; 14: 436-442. 2. Heidland A, Ritz E, Lang F. The joint Society of Nephrology in Germany, Switwerlamd and Austria. Five Decades of successful Activities. G Ital Nefrol 2016; 33 (Vol 66); 98-103. 3. The legacy of Karl Julius Ullrich (1925-2010). J Nephrol 2013; 26 (Suppl. 22); 103-109. 4. DeSanto NG, Altucci P, Heidland A, Stein G, Cameron JS, Rutkowski B. Role of emeriti and retired professor of medicine. Q J Med 20114; 107:405-407. 5. DeSanto NG, Altucci P, Heidland A, Stein G, Cameron JS, Rutkowski B. Role of emeriti and retired professor of medicine. Il ruolo e l'attività dei professori clinici emeriti o in pensione. L'Acropoli 2014; XV: 324-331. 6. Ostrowski J., Rutkowski B. “Poczet Członków Honorowych Polskie Towarzystwa Nefrologicznego. Cz. IV Professor August Heidland, Forum Nefrologiczne 2013 ; 4 : 273-276. August Heidland: six decades of medical and scientific activities August Heidland studied medicine at universities of Marburg, Munich, Freiburg, Vienna and finally Düsseldorf, where he got the medical degree and performed his dissertation in 1957. Training of internal medicine occurred at the University of Würzburg. From 1972 until 1994 he was Chief of the Division of Nephrology of the Clinic of Internal Medicine and from 1975 until 1995 Chief of the Kuratorium for Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation in Würzburg. Main research projects 1958-1994 Since in the late 1950s the hemodialysis treatment of patients with acute renal failure was associated with many technical problems Heidland started together with Karl Klütsch (1961) a research project in anesthetized dogs about the effect of hemodialysis-induced hypopotassemia on the cardio-vascular system, ECG and kidney function. In the mid of 1970s the effect of hemo- and cross dialysis treatment in phalloidin-intoxicated rats was investigated to elucidate whether this method could be efficient in mushroom-intoxicated patients (together with Röckel). Unfortunately, treatment effects were negative. In the 1980s extended studies on the biocompatibility of dialysis membranes were performed using determination of elastase in leukocytes as a sensitive new diagnostic parameter (together with Walter Hörl and Roland Schäfer). After introduction of the loop diuretic furosemide Heidland found that higher dosages of the drug induced a diuretic response even in extremely low GFR levels of 4 ml/min. Together with Malte Wigand (1971) they demonstrated a dose dependent reversible ototoxic side effect of furosemide. In subsequent investigations in this field the basis for a safe dosing of furosemide was elaborated. - A new treatment possibility for patients with distal tubular acidosis was published suggested with Ekkehart Heidbreder in 1973. They demonstrated in a severely ill patient that the chronic administration of the loop diuretic ethacrynic acid corrected the systemic metabolic acidosis (by enhanced proton excretion), improved the osteomalacia and stabilized the nephrocalcinosis. In investigations of the renal excretion mechanism of catecholamines (marked noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine) in dogs the importance of O- methylation for their secretion in the proximal tubulus was described (with Klaus Hempel 1973). - Other studies with Hennemann were focused on the metabolism of catecholamines in uremia. They found a decreased norepinephrine content in the parotid gland, heart and kidney, most probably due to a lowered synthesis, enhanced degradation and lowered neuronal uptake (Hennemann et al 1973). This was the first description of the toxic sympathicopathy in uremia. Motivated by Prof. K.J. Ullrich and H. Knauf (Max Planck Institute for Biophysics, Frankfurt/M), substance transport in salivary glands was investigated. For this purpose, in parotid saliva of humans and rats the flow-dependent excretion of cations and anions (Kreusser et al, 1972) as well of kallikrein (Röckel) and cyclic AMP (G. Schmid et al) was analyzed. In patients with essential hypertension, Conn’s and Bartter’s syndrome as well as in end-stage renal failure marked alterations were observed. Since the protein hypercatabolism in acute renal failure is associated with an extremely enhanced mortality the underlying mechanisms were studied together with Walter Hörl and Roland Schäfer. They could show that in particular an enhanced proteinase activity is involved, which could be reduced by proteinase inhibitor leupeptin, glucocorticoid antagonist and adrenalectomy in rats (1980). Also, hemodialysis treatment is associated with an enhanced proteinase activity after use of bioincompatible dialyzer membranes, which is partly induced by activation of leukocytes and release of elastase (Hörl et al 1983). In studies about pathogenesis of renal fibrosis, in various animal models an impaired proteinase activity was shown as an important underlying mechanism (together with Markus Teschner, Leszek Paczek, Roland and Liane Schäfer). This alteration could be improved by low protein diet and application of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Interestingly, also intraperitoneal administration of certain proteolytic enzymes also resulted in an improved renal function and renal morphology (investigations with Paczek (1991-2012) and Sebekova (1995-2010)). In 1977 a collaboration with the well-known neuro-anatomist Prof. Miklos Palkovits (Budapest/Bethesda NIH), was started with work on specific cardiovascular brain centers of rats with various forms of hypertension (G. Schmid, Udo Bahner and Helmut Geiger). In microdissected brain areas striking alterations of the adenylate-cAMP phosphodiesterase system as well as of atrial natriuretic peptide were observed. Main research projects 1994-2018 In further investigations with Palkovits and also Sebekova, neuronal activation in numerous brain areas/nuclei was studied in different forms of acute renal failure. Acute uremia was characterized by an early activation of Fos and Fra-2 gene products in 70 different nuclei/areas of the rat brain (Palkovits et al. 2009). Also, brain functions in chronic renal insufficiency induced in rats by 4/6 nephrectomy were investigated and marked alterations of Fos activity was documented (Palkovits et al, 2013). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play a fundamental role in diabetes mellitus and aging. Together with Gerald Münch, Reinhard Schinzel, Andreas Simm and Katharina Sebekova the potential role of AGEs in various renal diseases were investigated. First of all, AGEs were shown to lower the proteolytic activity in kidney tubulus cells. In different forms of acute renal failure a marked rise of AGEs was observed (together with Sebekova and Thornalley. Furthermore, marked increases of circulating AGEs were observed in patients with liver cirrhosis with improvement after liver transplantation (together with Sebekova, Ahmed and Thornalley). Since DNA damage is an important factor in the development of premature ageing, atherosclerosis and cancer, investigations in renal failure were performed in collaboration with Helga Stopper and Nicole Schupp (Institute of Toxicology, Würzburg). It could be demonstrated that in end-stage renal failure genomic damage occurs frequently in peripheral blood lymphocytes. In vitro, the group could also demonstrate genotoxic effects of various AGEs as well as of angiotensin II in renal tubule cells. Co-administration of an AT1 receptor blocker in vitro as well as in patients with end stage renal disease reduced the genomic damage significantly (Schupp, Rutkowski Jr.). Beneficial effects on genomic damage were also demonstrated by daily hemodialysis as well as use of high flux dialysis membranes. In end-stage renal disease pain is a frequent problem, in particular due to peripheral neuropathy. After introduction of high frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation by the German Diabetes Institute in 2005 in diabetic patients, the Würzburg group studied the effects of this treatment with other centers on uremic polyneuropathies in dialysis patients. After four-week treatment period a significant improvement in pain and burning was achieved (together with André Klassen, 2008). Many patients with end stage renal disease suffer from muscle wasting, resulting in severe sarcopenia. Since many patients are unable or unwilling to perform active exercise, KfH Kidney Center together with Orthopedic Center (Seefried) introduce whole-body vibration as an alternative to active exercise. After a 12-week treatment period significant improvement of physical performance and systemic inflammatory activity could be shown. Therefore, whole- body vibration seems to be an effective method in patients with end-stage renal disease. Publications on the historical personalities in medicine Beginning of modern concept of inflammation: the work of Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen and Julius Friedrich Cohnheim. Karl Peter's fundamental contribution to the structural organization of the kidney. The contribution of Rudolf Virchow to the concept of inflammation: what is still of importance? Georg Ganter--a pioneer of peritoneal dialysis and his tragic academic demise at the hand of the Nazi regime. Professor Tadeusz Orlowski--in memory of a pioneer in European nephrology and transplantation. The legacy of Karl Julius Ullrich (1925-2010). Franz Volhard and Theodor Fahr: achievements and controversies in their research in renal disease and hypertension. Scientific success of collaborators Ten collaborators of Prof. Heidland finalized their habilitation at the medical University of Würzburg. Among them Walter Hörl† became Head of the Dept. of Internal Medicine III in Vienna, Helmut Geiger, Head of the Dept. of Nephrology, University of Frankfurt/Main, Roland Schäfer, became C-3 professor at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, University of Münster, and Ekkehard Heidbreder, C-2 professor at the Dept. of Internal Medicine, University of Würzburg. Udo Bahner and Markus Teschner overtook the leading of the KfH kidney center in Würzburg. Prof. Dr. L. Paczek, who worked scientifically for two years in our department, is now Head of the Institute of Transplant Medicine and Immunology in Warsaw and past Rector of the Medical University. Rutkowski Jr. made a successful scientific career at the medical university of Gdansk. August Heidland functions in societies included 13 years of Secretary of the German speaking Society of Nephrology and one year as chairman as well as five years Chairman of the Kuratorium. He was for three years President of the International Society for Renal Nutrition and Metabolism, Representative of the German League for Fight against Hypertension in Lower Franconia (since 1976), chairman of the Würzburg Association for Fight against Hypertension and Renal Disease (since 1980), Advisor of the Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte (BfArM) (1988-2005) and Co-ordinator of the European project “Eurodate Life” and overweight and obesity (2005-2015). According to Pubmed 555 papers (Hirsch-Index: 52), ca. 60 review articles and 15 books published with the collaborators of the Division of Nephrology (Hennemann, Heidbreder, Hörl, Geiger, Bahner, Schmid, Teschner, Schäfer, Röckel), biochemists (Schinzel, Münch) and pharmacologists (Stopper, Schupp) of the University of Würzburg as well as researchers from Poland (Paczek, Gaciong, Kokot, Rutkowski Jun.), Slovakia (Sebekova) and Hungary (Palkovits). Organization of national and international meetings 1974 International congress on renal insufficiency in Würzburg 1977 1st international congress on nutrition and metabolism in Würzburg (together with Massry and Kopple) 1979 Congress of German league for fight against hypertension in Würzburg 1980 Congress of the society of nephrology in Würzburg 1983 and 1987 International congress on Proteases: potential role in health and disease in Würzburg and Rothenburg 1988 Joint meeting of German Speaking Society and Israeli Society of Nephrology in Jerusalem together with J. Bernheim 1993 Moscow seminar in nephrology together with Kopple, Massry and Tareyeva As chairman of the Kuratorium of the Gesellschaft für Nephrologie (together with Eberhard Ritz, Günter Stein and Christof Wanner) the following update seminars on hypertension and renal disease were organized with the indicated foreign societies of Nephrology: 1995 Wisla, Polish Society of Nephrology 1995 Timisoara, Romanian Society of Nephrology 1996 St. Petersburg, Russian Society of Nephrology 1996 Sofia, Bulgarian Society of Nephrology 1997 Brdo, Slovenian and Croatian Societies of Nephrology 1998 Kiev, Ukrainian Society of Nephrology 1998 Bratislava, Slovakian Society of Nephrology Awards and Honours: Louis Pasteur Medal, University of Strasbourg (France) 1987 Domenico Cotugno Gold Medal , University of Bari (Italy) 1987 Health Advancement Award, National Kidney Foundation (USA) 1988 Jan Evangelista Purkinje Medal, CSFR Nephrological Society (Czech Republic) 1989 Nicolaus Copernicus Medal, Polish Academy of Sciences 1990 David Hume Memorial Award , National Kidney Foundation (USA) 1991 Franz Volhard Medal, Gesellschaft für Nephrologie (Germany) 1995 External Member, Polish Academy of Science 1997 Bundesverdienstkreuz am Bande , Federal Republic of Germany 2003 Deutscher Enzym-Preis 2007 Titus Chalubinski Medal , University of Warsaw (Poland) 2008 Doctor Honoris Causa of the Silesian Medical Academy, Poland (1990), University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu” of Cluj-Napoca, Romania (2007), Gdansk Medical University, Poland (2009) and Medical University of Warsaw, Poland (2011). Honorary Memberships of Societies of Nephrology of Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Roman 11 IAHN CONGRESS Dear friends! The next Congress of the International Association for the History of Nephrology, the “XI IAHN Congress”, will be held on September 12-15, 2019 in Larissa, Greece. In the following I provide provisional lists of the international organising and scientific committees and the leading subjects awaiting your comments Sincerely yours Iwannis Stefanidis Congress President National Organising Committee: Iwannis Stefanidis – Congress President Members: Dimitra Bacharaki, Georgios Eustratiadis, Eirini Grapsa, Maria Kalientzidou, Grigorios Miserlis, Vassiliou E ., Panos Zirogiannis, Dimitrios Vlachakos Stefanos Geroulanos, Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou, Markos Sgantzos, Constantinos Trompoukis, International   Organising   Committee: Janusz Ostrowski, Natale De Santo, Vincenzo Savica, Katka Derzsiova, Marek Muszytowski, Lorenzo Calò, Ahmet Aciduman, Przemyslaw Rutkowski,Biagio Ricciardi Scientific Committee: Athanasios Diamandopoulos (Greece) - Chairman Ioannis Stefanidis (Greece) - Secretary Ayse Balat (Turkey) Guido Bellinghieri (Italy) Garabed Eknoyan (USA) August Heidland (Germany) Janusz Ostrowski (Poland) Boleslaw Rutkowski (Poland) Vincenzo Savica (Italy) Leading Subjects: Treatment of renal disease from ancient myths to modern technology Major and minor medical literature on renal disease in the Middle Ages Comparison of scientific and popular medicine until the 19th century Giants in Nephrology Renal disease in the Sub-Saharian Africa. Transition from traditional to modern Nephrology. History of Nephrology from Asia Development of nephrology after Richard Bright, modern nephrology? Miscellaneous Council Meeting Earlier this year (29 November 1 December) an official meeting of the IAHN Council Members was held in Warsaw and Włocławek , Poland. Organised and chaired by the IAHN President Janusz Ostrowski the meeting was attended by the Council Members: Katarina Derzsiova, Natale De Santo, Iwannis Stefanidis and Ahmet Aciduman, who were also joined by Boleslaw Rutkowski. A number of burning issues about the present and future of the IAHN were discussed over the two days. One of the items on the agenda was the summary of the 2017 IAHN Congress in Poland and the discussion about the preparations for the next one to be held in Larissa, Greece in 2019. Moreover, the problem of the location of the following Congress in 2021 was raised. The discussion also concerned the cooperation between the IAHN and other scientific societies, as well as the current financial and personal status of the society. The Councillors unanimously agreed that the meeting was very necessary and successful and that similar gatherings ought to be continued in-between congresses.
Bulletin
No. 1, December 2018
More information on the next IAHN congress in Larissa, Greece is coming up soon on our website.
Janusz Ostrowski Editor-in-Chief